Std-12 Political Science - Rajyashastra Gujarati Medium Textbook pdf Download

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Std-12 Political Science - Rajyashastra 

Gujarati Medium Textbook pdf Download

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You can see Std-12 Political Science -Gujarati Medium Textbook pdf DownloadAll GCERT Book updated in last year. So all teacher and student most use full book. This book student use full book.

Textbook Name: Std- 12 Political Science - Rajyashastra  Gujarati Medium Textbook

Language: Gujarati 

Class: Standard - 12

Published by: Gujarat State Board of School Textbooks (GSSTB)

Download Mode and Format: Online Mode and PDF Format File

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Std-11 Political Science - Rajyashastra Gujarati Medium Textbook

In conventional inquiry, internal validity refers to the extent to which the findings accurately describe reality. Lincoln and Guba (1985) state that “the determination of such isomorphism is in principle impossible” (p. 294), because one would have to know the “precise nature of that reality” and, if one knew this already, there would be no need to test it (p. 295). 

12th STD Political Science/Rajyashastra  book 

The conventional researcher must postulate relationships and then test them; the postulate cannot be proved, but only falsified. The naturalistic researcher, on the other hand, assumes the presence of multiple realities and attempts to represent these multiple realities adequately. Credibility becomes the test for this. Credibility depends less on sample size than on the richness of the information gathered and on the analytical abilities of the researcher (Patton, 1990). 

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It can be enhanced through triangulation of data. Patton identifies four types of triangulation: 1) methods triangulation; 2) data triangulation; 3) triangulation through multiple analysts; and 4) theory triangulation. Other techniques for addressing credibility include making segments of the raw data available for others to analyze, and the use of “member checks,” in which respondents are asked to corroborate findings (Lincoln and Guba, 1985, pp. 313316). External Validity / Generalizability versus Transferability In conventional research, external validity refers to the ability to generalize findings across different settings. 

STD-12 Rajyashastra Textbook pdf 

Making generalizations involves a trade-off between internal and external validity (Lincoln and Guba, 1985). That is, in order to make generalizable statements that apply to many contexts, one can include only limited aspects of each local context. According to Cronbach, “when we give proper weight to local conditions, any generalization is a working hypothesis, not a conclusion” (p. 125). In the naturalistic paradigm, the transferability of a working hypothesis to other situations depends on the degree of similarity between the original situation and the situation to which it is transferred.

Std-11 Political Science - Rajyashastra 

Gujarati Medium Textbook pdf 

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