Std-11 ChitraKala -Gujarati Medium Textbook pdf Download

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Std-11 ChitraKala -Gujarati Medium 

Textbook pdf Download 

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Textbook Name: STD-11 ChitraKala -Gujarati Medium Textbook

Language: Gujarati 

Class: Standard - 11 

Published by: Gujarat State Board of School Textbooks (GSSTB)

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Std-11 ChitraKala -Gujarati Medium Textbook PDF 

Another aspect of the inability of scientists to be objective is found in theoryladen observation, a psychological notion (Hodson, 1986). Scientists, like all observers, hold myriad preconceptions and biases about the way the world operates. These notions, held in the subconscious, affect the ability of everyone to make observations. It is impossible to collect and interpret facts without any bias. 

Class-11 ChitraKala -Gujarati Medium Textbook PDF 

There have been countless cases in the history of science in which scientists have failed to include particular observations in their final reports. This occurs, not because of fraud or deceit, but because of the prior knowledge possessed by the individual. Certain facts either were not Seen at all or were deemed unimportant based on the scientists' prior expectations. In earlier discussions of induction, we postulated that two individuals reviewing the same data would not be expected to reach the same conclusions. 

GSEB STD-11 ChitraKala Textbook PDF 

Not only does individual creativity play a role, but the issue of personal theory-laden observation further complicates the situation. This lesson has clear implications for science teaching. Teachers typically provide learning experiences for students without considering their prior knowledge. In the laboratory, for instance, students are asked to perform activities, make observations and then form conclusions. 

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There is an expectation that the conclusions formed will be both self-evident and uniform. In other words, teachers anticipate that the data will lead all pupils to the same conclusion. This could only happen if each student had exactly the same prior conceptions and made and evaluated observations using identical schemes. The does not happen in science nor does it occur in the science classroom. Related to the issue of theory-based observations is the allegiance to the paradigm. Thomas Kuhn (1970), in his ground-breaking analysis of the history of science, suggested that scientists work within a research tradition called a paradigm.

Std-11 ChitraKala 

Gujarati Medium Textbook pdf 

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