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You can see STD 02 All SUBJECT GCERT TEXTBOOK PDF DOWNLOAD. All GCERT Book updated in last year.  The proposal of a new law begins through induction as facts are heaped upon other relevant facts. 

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Deduction is useful in checking the validity of a law. For example, if we postulate that all swans are white, we can evaluate the law by predicting that the next swan found will also be white.  If it is, the law is supported (but not proved as we discuss). Locating a black swan will cause the law to be questioned. The nature of induction itself is another interesting aspect associated with this myth. If we set aside the problem of induction momentarily, there is still the issue of how scientists make the final leap from the mass of evidence to the conclusion. 

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In an idealized view of induction, the accumulated evidence will simply result in the production of a new law or theory in a procedural or mechanical fashion. In reality, there is no such method. The issue is far more complex and interesting than that. The final creative leap from evidence to scientific knowledge is the focus of another myth of science. (See Figure 4)

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Tentativeness resulting in a lack of dogmatism is one of the points that differentiates science from other forms of knowledge. Accumulated evidence can provide support, validation and substantiation for a law or theory, but will never prove those laws and theories to be true. 

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This idea has been addressed well by Horner and Rubba (1978) and Lopushinsky (1993). The problem of induction argues against proof in science, but there is another element of this myth worth exploring. In actuality, the only truly conclusive knowledge produced by science results when a notion is falsified. What this means is that no matter what scientific idea is considered, once disconfirming evidence begins to accumulate, at least we know that the notion is untrue.

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