Std 1 to 8 Varshik Pariksha Tarij Patrak Blank Excel File Download

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Std 1 to 8 Varshik Pariksha Tarij Patrak Blank Excel File Download

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As is well known, the returns to the baccalaureate degree vary by field of study (Leslie & Brinkman, 1988; Rum Berger & Thomas, 1993; Grubb 1992b; 1995c), with engineering, business, math and science having the highest returns while the humanities and education have the lowest returns. 

It is reasonable to expect parallel differences in the returns to sub-baccalaureate education. To my knowledge, I have been the only one to examine this issue, with both the NLS72 data (Grubb, 1995d) and with the SIPP data as well (Grubb, 1997). In the NLS72 results, returns are particularly high for Associate degrees in health occupations, in technical fields for men, and in "other" fields (like communications and design) among women; the returns are negative though insignificant for agriculture, marketing (i.e., retail sales), and education for men. For the SIPP data, Table 6 presents the returns to certificates, Associate degrees, and (for comparative purposes) baccalaureate degree by field of study." 

Despite problems with small samples in certain occupational areas, some clear patterns emerge. The modest return to vocational certificates for men in 1987 of about .146 averages higher returns to engineering, computer, and health-related certificates with much lower returns for business and miscellaneous vocational subjects. Similarly, the insignificant coefficient of .063 for 1990 (Table 4) appears to be an average of higher returns for business and engineering/computers, balanced by lower and possibly negative returns in other fields. For women, health-related certificates have significant returns but other fields do not, including the relatively common fields of business and vocational/technical subjects. At this level, "business" programs are often preparing secretaries and data-entry clerks, so it is not surprising to find low returns.

The effects of Associate degrees are somewhat clearer because sample sizes are larger. For men, the returns to Associate degrees are highest in engineering and computer fields; public service' and vocational/technical fields have significant returns in 1987 but not 1990, while business is significant in 1990 but not 198'7." For women, business and health-related occupations have positive returns, while others do not; in vocational/ technical fields (which include lowpaid cosmetology programs) and in education (largely child care) the coefficients are negative though insignificant. Evidently, because of the sub-stantial gender segregation at this level of the labor market, the results are substantially different for men and women except in business. 

Therefore efforts to move women into non-traditional occupations need not only to persuade women to enroll in the appropriate educational programs, but must also change the employment patterns that deny women returns equivalent to those of men. For Associate degrees in academic subjects, the coefficients are generally insignificant or small, except for women in the "other" category"" in 1987. (In 1990 results, math for men and humanities and social science for women are significant.) This finding suggests that the academic Associate degree, which was historically the path for transferring to four-year colleges, is not necessarily a good investment for those who fail to transfer.'i The results for baccalaureate degrees replicate familiar results: the highest returns are in business, engineering/computers, health, and math/science; returns are lower in social sciences (at least for men) and the humanities, and lower still in education. 

These results are more consistent between men and women than are the results for Associate degreesperhaps a reflection that patterns of gender segregation are more powerful in sub-baccalaureate occupations than they are in occupations for which a baccalaureate degree is common.'" Finally, the returns to Associate degrees and to baccalaureate degrees overlap. For example, men can earn more by getting an Associate degree in engineering, public service, or vocational/technical subjects than they can from a baccalaureate in the humanities or education; women can earn more with an Associate degree in business or health than with a baccalaureate in vocational/technical subjects, the humanities, or education.

Parinam Tarij Patrak Blank Excel Download 

1 to 8 Varshik Pariksha Tarij Patrak Blank Excel File Download

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